Translating the object-oriented metaphor typically used in compiled programming languages to a descriptive markup language is a bit challenging to wrap your head around, but this is exactly what Lightning Components in Salesforce do. It makes them quite powerful, flexible and minimizes duplicate code — something that has been trending more and more in front-end web programming.
Thank the gods.
The documentation on how this metaphor is actually implemented in Lightning Components is a little lacking, so this blog post is a brief overview of how it’s done.
Prerequisite: Understand the basic structure of a Lightning Component (markup, controller, helper).
Abstract, Extensible, Implements, Interfaces, oh my!
If you’re familiar with object-oriented programming, these keywords should sound familiar. For the most part, these keywords mean the same thing when used in a Lightning Component. However, there are some differences, and behavior of these keywords isn’t always obvious (or documented).
Abstract means the same thing it does in traditional OOP. This is a component that doesn't really do anything on its own, and it can’t be instantiated on its own. It relies on other components to extend and use its methods. To signify a Lightning Component as abstract, simply add
abstract="true" to its opening tag.
The cool thing is that if you search for abstract in Salesforce's documentation, they’ll explain it at a high-level, but won’t tell you what it actually means for the implementation of your component. If you look at the attribute list for
aura:component, they don’t list it at all!
So, what does setting the abstract attribute to true actually do?
It means that you cannot explicitly include the abstract component inside of another component in code; if you try, that component will fail to save. You can only use an abstract component by extending it with another, non-abstract component.
<aura:component name="My Non-Abstract Component"> <c:My_Abstract_Component/> NOPE. This won't compile. </aura:component>
<aura:component name="My Non-Abstract Component" extends="c:My_Abstract_Component"> YUP. This is what you should do. </aura:component>
All abstract components are extensible, even if you don’t set the extensible attribute to true, but not all extensible components are abstract. When you extend a component, its child and grand-children will inherit each
aura:attribute and helper method; there is no reason to define these again in its descendants.
Unlike traditional OOP, you can only extend one component at a time.
<aura:component name="My Component" extends="c:Abstract_Component,c:Base_Component"> NOPE. This won't compile. </aura:component>
Implements & Interfaces
The implements attribute tells the component what interfaces it can be used in. In the context of Salesforce, this means whether it can be used in the Lightning Experience, a Lightning Community, a custom interface, or any configuration thereof.
I haven’t explored writing my own interface, as we generally stick to the defaults in my line of work, but it’s on my list of things to dig into a little deeper.
There does not appear to be a limit to how many interfaces a component can implement, nor does it need to implement an interface at all — again, both of which make sense in the tradition of OOP. Note that while excluding an interface prevents a user from adding a component to the page from within Salesforce, it does not prevent developers from including it inside another component through code.
Putting it Together
To illustrate these concepts, I’ll be using the metaphors of vehicles and cars; if you are already familiar with object-oriented principles, this will be review. By putting abstract and extensible components together, your application might look something like this:
- abstract Vehicle
- Car extends Vehicle
- Jeep extends Car
- Pontiac extends Car
- Boat extends Vehicle
- Car extends Vehicle
Translated to Lightning Components and a business use-case, that would look something like:
<aura:component name="Base_Component" abstract="true"> This component has a lot of helper methods that several other components will need to use, like getting a server-side response. </aura:component>
<aura:component name="Feature_Base_Component" extends="Base_Component"> This component has a lot of helper methods that deal with a single object or business requirement. It may or may not be abstract. </aura>
<aura:component name="Visual_Component" extends="Feature_Base_Component"> This component is a specific piece of UI functionality that may need to use helper methods in the Object_Base_Component or within the Base_Component! While this component will usually have a controller, it generally won't need helper methods of its own. </aura:component>
- If you have a base component with a lot of methods that other components need to use, but no descriptive markup or value on its own, set the abstract attribute to true.
- If a component can be extended, set the extensible attribute to true (even if it’s an abstract).
- If you find yourself writing a helper method twice, put it into a parent component that can be extended by its two children.
- While you can chain extensions near indefinitely, it's usually recommended to stop after 3-5 extensions.